Clothesline Bans Void in 19 States

Surprise! For millions, state laws hang community rules out to dry.
This post is part of the research project: Making Sustainability Legal
Patrick Barber, used with permission

Patrick Barber, used with permission

As we and others have said, hundreds of thousands of people across Cascadia—and tens of millions across the United States—live where homeowners associations (HOAs) (or apartment or condo rules) ban clotheslines. Clotheslines are a quintessentially sustainable tool that saves money, prolongs the lifespan of laundry, and eliminates pollution. A “right-to-dry” movement has sprung up and won laws in six states––Florida, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, and Vermont—to render these bans void and unenforceable. In another 13 states, I have discovered to my surprise and delight, solar access laws already on the books appear to protect solar drying.

Yet in all of these 19 states, illegal bans persist in community rulebooks, such as HOA Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CC&Rs), and a number that likely runs into the millions of residents do not know they already have a right to dry. Solar access laws, many of them from the 1970s, and obscure amendments to state property law hardly fall in the category of common knowledge. When Sightline sent out an email alert asking people to let us know about bans where they live, over a third of responses came from inside these 19 states.

In the map below, I have marked clothesline bans that readers notified us about (keep telling us about more by writing to [email protected]!) or that I have found in other ways. The explicit right-to-dry states are those with blue pushpins marking clothesline bans. Of the 220 bans marked on the map as of today, 26 are in states that specifically mention clothesline bans as void. The solar-access-law states are those with yellow pushpins marking bans. Some 103 bans are in these states. The two green pins show bans in Utah, where individual land-use authorities may protect the right to dry. While laws in Delaware and New Jersey allow for roof-mounted solar systems and Washington law overrides bans on solar panels, these states and 27 others have no legal protections for solar energy generally or clotheslines specifically. In these states, marked in red, the right to dry is not yet protected.

View a larger version of our map of clothesline bans.

Consider one example: The Forest Heights neighborhood, Oregon’s largest ever new-home community, is located in Portland’s posh West Hills. The community boasts over 1,600 single family homes, covering 600 acres.

A pillar of the Forest Heights marketing campaign is environmental stewardship: the HOA website boasts that the community has set aside more than a third of its acreage as common green space, complete with seven walking trails and a private pond. The website promotes a “Go Green” campaign and offers residents an “EcoShuttle” service.

At the same time, and in direct contradiction to the community’s green claims, the Forest Heights CC&Rs limit placement of clotheslines to “service yards” that are “completely screened so that the elements screened are not visible at any time from the street or any adjoining property.” This amounts to a de facto ban: The average lot is under a quarter acre, and nearly all homes have two stories, so completely concealing a clothesline is virtually impossible. The ban is also illegal, rendered toothless by a 1979 Oregon Law that says any restrictions on “solar radiation as a source for heating, cooling or electrical energy” are “void and unenforceable.”

Clotheslines appear to fit under the umbrella of Oregon’s, and other states’, solar rights because systems for hang-drying rely on the sun’s radiation to evaporate water in wet laundry. Clotheslines rely on solar energy, so their use is protected where laws provide blanket allowances for use of solar.

In addition to Oregon, the solar access laws in Arizona, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Wisconsin all delineate a homeowner’s right to install a “solar energy system,” “solar energy device,” “solar collector,” “system for obtaining solar energy” or “solar energy collection device.” The legal terminology varies, but the letter and spirit of these laws has one overarching message: homeowners may utilize the power of the sun.

Susan Taylor, used with permission

Nationwide in the United States, more than a quarter million homeowner associations govern upwards of 60 million people. Alexander Lee, a champion of the right-to-dry movement, estimates that “more than half of them (HOAs) restrict or ban the clothesline.” If he is right, tens of millions of Americans are subject to either full or partial clothesline bans. Some 19 states, including populous ones such as California, Florida, and Texas, have right-to-dry laws. These facts combined suggest that millions of Americans live under illegal clothesline bans.

So spread the word! If you live in any of the states listed below and HOA rules have hampered your drying, take heart. The law was on your side all along. When Spring arrives, grab your clothespins and laundry basket, string up a line and hang out the wash. If anyone hassles you, point to the relevant statute. The table below specifies chapter and verse for each right-to-dry state.

The worst that could happen is that you might become part of a test case—a law suit that cements the right to dry in your state.

State Law
Florida Florida Statute 163.04
Colorado Colorado Common Interest Ownership Act, Section 38-33.3-107.7
Hawaii Senate Bill 1338
Maine Maine Revised Statute Title 33, Chapter 28-A
Maryland Senate Bill 224
Vermont Vermont Statutes, Title 27, Chapter 5
Oregon Chapter 105, Section 105.880
Arizona Arizona Statutes, Article 3, Chapter 4, Section 33-439
California California Civil Code Section 707-714.5
Illinois Homeowners’ Energy Policy Statement Act
Indiana Indiana Code 32-23-4
Louisiana House Bill 751
Massachusetts Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 184, Section 23C
Nevada Nevada Revises Statutes, Chapter 111, Section 239
New Mexico New Mexico Solar Rights Act
North Carolina Chapter 22B, Article 3
Texas House Bill 362
Virginia 2010 Code of Virginia, Title 67, Chapter 7
Wisconsin Chapter 236, Section 292(2)
Utah* Utah Code, Title 10, Chapter 9a, Section 610

* Utah has clothesline-specific protections under the jurisdiction of some land-use authorities.

Read more on clotheslines:

Jon Howland is a Seattle-based teacher, debate coach, and Sightline volunteer. Alan Durning edited this post.

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Comments

  1. me says:

    LOL – Thank you for addressing one of my major pet peeves! I thought folks were pulling me leg when I learned that people here aren’t allowed to dry their own laundry in their own backyards. Never mind ecological reasons, or missing out on the joy of freshly airdried sheets, or mold in the home… from a pure liberties perspective, this is just ridiculous. I never knew anyone else felt as strongly about this as I did…

    • Steven Lake says:

      This is such an important article. Its so important to point out that although their are laws in place to protect the homeowner that doesn’t necessarily mean they will be able to line dry without it being sighted as a problem by their community.
      Ive spent two and a half years on this documentary…
      http://www.dryingforfreedom.com

      if you love the clothesline it might be worth your while checking it out.

      Steve

  2. PG says:

    They can try to take our solar, but they can’t take away our freedom… to clothesline.

    One tip – when the weather is not clothesline friendly, move it indoors. It works and all you need is a shower type rod, brackets to hold it and plastic coat hangers that you probably already have. it takes about 8 hours to dry the heavy cotton and lessens your need for the dryer by 70%. put it over your washer/dryer if you can.

    it’s slow drying but will do the job when outside won’t.

    xo xo
    clothesliner in hiding

  3. Georgie Bright Kunkel says:

    Can you imagine, mounting legislation in state after state for the right to hang clothes on the line? Our government is getting too complicated. There must be some way for us to simplify our lives.

    I wouldn’t want to go back to the farm but cities need to be decentralized so that people have more control over their own lives without too many levels of government rules and retulations.

  4. Georgie Bright Kunkel says:

    Sorry. Regulations was misspelled.

  5. Justin says:

    The argument from HOAs is that people agree to certain conduct in the CCRs. That is, they give up certain rights (say, to paint a house any color you want or to hang a line) to gain the privilege of living in that development. It’s then only a contract dispute, not a matter of rights.
    I don’t like this argument, but it seems to hold up in court. The only exceptions I’m familiar with are those dealing with CCRs based on race or religion. Outside of that, courts just won’t even consider the case.
    Am I wrong? Have you seen case law that says otherwise?

    • Jon says:

      Hi Justin,

      I think you’re right about the argument made by HOAs. The rationale behind that argument is that clotheslines are an eyesore that decrease property value. I’m unaware of any actual evidence that establishes this casual relationship, but I digress.

      The exceptions you bring up — race and religion — are just two of many examples. Here in Washington State, HOA bans on political yard signs, hanging American flags, and installation of solar panels are all rendered void by this state law: http://apps.leg.wa.gov/rcw/default.aspx?cite=64.38&full=true.

      States can, and do, limit the reach of HOAs.

      Six states have specifically named clotheslines as one thing HOAs cannot restrict. I’m not sure of any court cases in these states, but the HOAs wouldn’t have a leg to stand on since the law is so clear. Another 13 states protect the use of “solar energy devices” or “solar energy systems” or so forth. The point I’m making in the article is that laundry on a clothesline is being dried by solar energy, so clotheslines are covered by these sort of solar access laws.

      I suspect that citing the state laws linked in the table above will scare off HOA enforcers 99% of the time. In that 1% of the time where neither the HOA or the homeowner will budge the courts would have to weigh in…

  6. Stephanie says:

    Hello,

    In regard to this article (and thank you all so much for all your work on this!), I live in Vero Beach, Florida in a HOA mobile home community. Being Florida is now a right-to-dry state, can my HOA still prohibit me from hanging out my clothes to day? Cause they do.

    Stephanie

    • Jon says:

      Hi Stephanie,

      In fact, your HOA cannot prohibit you from hanging out your clothes. You can point them to Florida Statute 163.04.

      Part 1 of the law says, “the adoption of an ordinance… which prohibits or has the effect of prohibiting the installation of… clotheslines…is expressly prohibited.” The only exception is “patio railings in condominiums, cooperatives, or apartments.”

      Florida’s law is looked to as the model, nationally — it offers the strongest protection of any state in terms of using clotheslines.

      So, dry on!

      Best,

      Jon

  7. Doug says:

    Jon,
    I just moved from a very “wet” state North Carolina to New Mexico a very “dry” state and was very disappointed to learn, today, that the neighborhood that I am purchasing a house in has restrictions on clothes lines. My question to you is do you feel that the New Mexico solar law REALLY protects you from HOA’s and their restrictive covenants? If so, I’m going to probably give it a try. I’ve hung clothes out at all the states that I have lived in (Oregon, North Carolina, Washington, Rhode Island,Colorado) and do not want to get “stopped short” in a climate where the clothes will dry in record time! Please let me know your thoughts as soon as possible as I “close” on my new home at the end of the month. Do you know an attorney that my take my case, on a low fee basis? Thanks

    • Jon says:

      Hi Doug,

      I feel pretty good about New Mexico’s Solar Rights Act protecting solar drying. Here’s why:

      The law says you can use “solar collectors” and defines these as devices that rely on sunshine as an energy source and can collect at least 25,000 BTUs on a clear winter solstice day. A clothesline can collect much more than this. Electric dryers don’t generally measure their energy use in BTUs, but natural gas clothes dryers do: the designs I’ve seen use upwards of 20,000 BTUs for one load. And, even on the shortest day of the year, a clothesline could dry several loads of laundry.

      What’s more, outside this BTU requirement, the law protects your use of a device to heat water — that’s how clotheslines work, the sun evaporates the water in wet laundry by heating it.

      So, I think you’re doubly covered.

      I’m not a lawyer, so I can’t recommend bringing up these facts before or after closing… I also don’t know any lawyers in New Mexico, but I’ll ask around.

      Good luck! And keep on hanging out!

      Best,
      Jon

  8. Kelly says:

    So This is a bit confusing. I rent an apartment in California. The landlord told me today that I am no longer allowed to line dry clothes. Is this legal? Am i protected by the right to dry or do I have to stop? I am not good with legalese and would appreciate a translation by someone that understands my rights. Thank you!

    • Kelly says:

      Might I add that we are also “not allowed” to make any holes in the walls or hang or mount lines inside. I have a toddler that makes drying racks pointless to use.

    • Jon says:

      Hi Kelly,

      Thanks for posting your question.

      My reading of the California Civil Code is that it protects owners but not renters. So you may be out of luck.

      That said, you could try to tell your landlord that “California Civil Code, section 714(a)” gives you a right to dry. I’ve copied this section below. There’s at least a chance he’d be convinced…

      Your argument is that your lease is a “contract” outlining your “interest” in the property which makes the “restriction” against clotheslines “void and unenforceable.”

      Good luck,
      Jon

      714. (a) Any covenant, restriction, or condition contained in any
      deed, contract, security instrument, or other instrument affecting
      the transfer or sale of, or any interest in, real property, and any
      provision of a governing document, as defined in subdivision (j) of
      Section 1351, that effectively prohibits or restricts the
      installation or use of a solar energy system is void and
      unenforceable.

  9. Suzanne Crawford says:

    I live in Jacksonville, Florida and for a week now have to battle for my “Right To Dry.” I am getting nasty emails after posting FL Statute 163.04 to provide the law that gives me that right. I have been reading countless online reports on this issue. I KNOW I am right and told them to uphold/defend the old covenant is specifically prohibited.
    To circumvent any excuses for prohibiting me from putting up clotheslines I even turned my request in to our Architectural Review Board–not to ask if I may put up a clothesline, but to get the location approved. I’ll have to wait for their answer.
    I cannot find any reference to whether or not our HOA can tell us if we have to remove the clotheslines every time we’re done drying outside, what we can hang out there or not, the material of the contraption, or the length.
    From what I can tell by some emails I am receiving, our HOA director would now be trying to go about it with those restrictions.
    FL Statute 163.04 is not specific enough to answer my questions. Is there anyone out there who can help?

  10. Jon Howland says:

    Hi, Suzanne,

    Thanks for posting and I’m sorry you are having to go through this with your HOA. FL Statute 103.04 does indeed protect your right to “install” a solar device, including a clothesline. So, my reading of the statute (though I’m not a lawyer) is that you can leave the clothesline up. And the intent of the law seems to point toward your right to hand dry whatever you want to.

    If you email me at jonhowland [at] gmail [dot] com I’ll send along the email address of someone who might be able to help, or at least point you in the right direction…

    Best,
    Jon

  11. Alex says:

    Sometimes I am inspired by the way the United States protects freedoms.Sometimes(I should say often in especially in the last 11 years),I am puzzled whether the U.S is going to become another Soviet Union that I once ran away from.No offence to US citizens.Just my opinion.

    Alexandr,
    Ukraine(former USSR).

  12. Gary says:

    If only we had common sense people (like the ones that run this site) in congress, a lot of our problems in this country would be solved.

  13. RNT says:

    I can’t tell you how excited I am to find this article. We’ve just endured three 105+ degree days in Charlotte, NC. I’ve had it with the bogus HOA rules that means my dryer is running as I write this note…adding to my electrical bills and heating up my house that I’m paying to air condition…this is utter nonsense.

    Do you have a recommended way to approach HOAs? Just put the clothesline up and then argue with them? Or, be proactive and give them time to come up with a ridiculous argument? Or, offer to be helpful and give an example of “clothesline rules” e.g., retractible, not seen from the street, etc?

  14. LeapBrowser says:

    Just great information on the clothesline poles. We custom build, design and install clothesline poles for The Charlotte NC metro area. Great to see someone who takes and interest in this.

  15. Fei says:

    I’m a little bummed about living in a condo in IL. The Act referenced specifically does “not apply to any building which is greater than 30 feet in height” (Section 45 = the last section), which seems overly broad. Not that there are any place to implement a clothsline in my building anyway.

    Oh well, one day I’ll get a real house.

  16. TOM CIVILETTI says:

    Great! Now we need an altrnative to PVC coating on clothesline.

  17. Georgie Bright Kunkel says:

    City living deprives many people of the village feeling where people live closer to the earth and enjoy down to earth living.

    Barring clotheslines or barring breast feeding along with other
    restrictions is ridiculous. Now if we barred gas guzzling and exhaust spewing cars in the city limits, that would be OK.

  18. Thomas Brudnicki says:

    I would like to begin the process of unbanning clotheslines in Pennsylvania. I live in an HOA an it is stated in Declarations that no clothing or household fabris shall be hung, dried or aired outside of any dwelling on any lot.. Would you have an idea of whom to contact to in PA legislature for the Easton area. Thanks

  19. Sarah Marker says:

    I live in Missoula, MT, generally a community known for it’s push for sustainability and support of local organic farms. I just received a notice today that my neighborhood association doesn’t allow clothes lines- something I was not made aware of until having a clothes line for five months. I’ve contacted a neighborhood liaison through the City of Missoula-is there anything else I can do? As far as I know, Montana doesn’t have a law protecting this right…probably because most Montanans could care less if their neighbors hang their clothes to dry.

  20. Angela Blair says:

    The Virginia solar access law seems to only apply to restrictions placed by HOAs on or before 2008. If our clothesline ban predates that, am I (pardon the pun) S.O.L.?

  21. Steve Whetstone says:

    Fairway Villas Homeowners Association located in Hudson Florida has not amended its Declaration regarding clotheslines, which state that clotheslines are not allowed. The association has been aware of the Florida Statute for over two years and no amendment to change this to comply with FS 163.04. The association is now trying to change the Rules and Regulations stating that only umbrella type clothesline is permitted in the backyard only and drying is not permitted on Sundays and Holidays. Florida Statute is very clear that HOA’s cannot control of restrict Clotheslines.

    • Paul Martinelli says:

      What do you expect, did you expect an Homeowners Association in Florida to comply with Florida Statutes, Florida cannot even count votes in a proper manner.

    • Josie Hernandez says:

      As someone who has gone thru a fight and litigation with my Florida HOA, I have some knowledge regarding this issue. First, you indicated that you are Declaration of Covenants and Restrictions have language that does not permit clotheslines. Your HOA is or has changed the Rules and Regulations regarding clotheslines, some rules can be made regarding this issue, but not days and time this would be CONTROL and violates Florida Statute 163.04. In addition, any change must be made in the Declaration since that is where language regarding clotheslines. When a conflict arises between the By-Laws, Rules and Regulations, etc., the Declaration is the prevailing document. Therefore, any Rule change that conflicts with the Declaration is not enforceable, when the Declaration is in Conflict with Federal or State Law, the Federal and State Law prevails. Depending on the size of your HOA, you may want to hire a Management Company to advise your BOD on these issued.
      In addition, I have won the case in Arbitration but I have since filed suit for all of my legal fees, which my HOA is refusing to pay. Stay tuned.

    • Bertha Meyers says:

      I owned property in Timber Oaks in Hudson Florida and have since moved. Our HOA sued a homeowner several years ago for a clothesline. The BOD of directors decided to file a lawsuit against a homeowner because our Declaration was clear that no clotheslines were permitted. Our BOD and attorney was not aware that Florida had a statute allowing clotheslines. In short the homeowner prevailed in the lawsuit and the cost to our HOA was 26K plus our incompetent attorney received his fees.

  22. Debb says:

    Really trying to understand the laws in NC. After searching the web, it seems like we are able to use a clothesline, however, in the last 2 weeks, there have been 2 different cases where the HOA’s won. Any help out there? We are in Wake county.

  23. love vintage roses says:

    i love hanging laundry on the clothesline: the act brings me together with women all over the world, past and present. it’s a bit of time by myself, shared with birdsong & my dogs. the sunshine disinfects as it dries and imparts the most wonderful FRESH smell…. is it serenity? i sew clothespin holders and clothespin aprons – my own designs – and sell them. https://www.etsy.com/listing/123060297/new-clothespin-holder-apron-vintage

  24. Anne Holland says:

    I am British so grew up drying laundry outside. I moved to West Orange, NJ 12 years ago and lived in a condo situation where clotheslines are banned. This community does allow you to install solar panels though!

    I have since moved to Essex Fells, NJ and live in a regular house (no HOA). I really want to dry laundry outside when possible. When I checked with another Essex Fells resident to see if drying laundry outside was allowed she informed me that it is not allowed.

    Any ideas as to where I need to go to find the law that prohibits the use of a clothesline and any solar panel laws for my town? I’d like to see them for myself and then to do what is needed to change these laws.

    Many thanks for all you are doing here.

  25. Geof Rayner says:

    I am public health professor – a specialist in obesity – and British, and was curious to know what Americans don’t hang out their washing. Having been in Houston, Tx, I inquired with my professor friend why he took his clothes from the washing machine and put them in a dryer – when it was over 100F outside. And why did no one else?
    Several reasons: one – habit – in a place where energy is seen as almost free; two, progress, washing line is ‘what our parents did’; three, local ordinances (possibly); and four, convention: our individual behaviour is shaped what other people do (so much for ‘individualism’!).

    This is a mix of shaping factors on behaviour which produce a kind of behavioural ‘lock in’. What is striking about this is that Texas makes a big deal of ‘freedom’, rights to bear ‘arms’, limited government, etc. What people really need perhaps is the right to bare arms and to employ washing lines. Instead ‘Progress’ (ie consumerism) is killing the planet and killing the sociability that society is built upon. In the Houston suburbs, I note, all the lawns are weed free and the back yards are bare. Like a cemetary.

    Please keep up the good work. The US is the heaviest user of energy/producer of C02 on the planet – but more than that it is a point for aspiration for many other societies. It is vitally important that culture is dramatically changed to redirect energy use in a different direction: ie human energy rather than fossil energy. For me, as an obesity prevention specialist one of the ways (besides changing cars for bikes) to reduce the US’s massive obesity problem is the use of many simple measures. Hanging out your washing is one.
    Please keep up the good work.

  26. Jon says:

    So I get this clear I live in Hawaii and I was trying to understand the Hawaii bill that was passed. So my HOA cannot stop me from putting up a clothes line? Currently they are telling me tat it is against the association rules to have a clothes line.

    • Jon says:

      Hi Jon,

      Your HOA can’t stop you from using your clothesline. The language in Senate Bill 1338 is clear…

      Placement of clotheslines. (a) Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, no person shall be prevented by any covenant, declaration, bylaws, restriction, deed, lease, term, provision, condition, codicil, contract, or similar binding agreement, however worded, from installing a clothesline on any single-family residential dwelling or townhouse that the person owns. Any provision in any lease, instrument, or contract contrary to the intent of this section shall be void and unenforceable.

      Cheers,
      Jon

  27. Rebecca says:

    Thanks for all your work on this, Jon! Not sure if this is an appropriate thing to post but I’m having a really hard time finding a retractable, movable, outdoor clothesline that is 42 feet, so thought I’d reach out to you and your readers. Movable means you can have multiple brackets and on the fence and just move the line depending on the season and where the sunlight is. I’m on a small lot in an Evanston Illinois. Thanks. Rebecca

  28. Erin Hargan says:

    Hi! Do you know what restrictions the state of Kentucky has about line drying? I received a letter AND a picture of my patio of 2 sweaters drying outside and told its against the bylaws of the HOA. Do you know if we’re a solar access state? Thanks!

  29. Kenneth says:

    I don’t understand why people would want to ban such beneficial method of drying clothes. To be honest, I’d prefer to line-dry rather than use dryers.

  30. Chris says:

    I noticed that Oklahoma is not listed among the states with laws in place. What is your recommendation for where to begin that process? Is there anything already in the works?

  31. Peggy Campbell says:

    Please help. I own a beach house in destiny west subdivision in DestinFlorida. I put out 2 clothes lines approximately a year ago to dry my beach towels and linens. At that time hoa had no covenants concerning clothes lines. Sept 2013 the board enacted new clothes line laws.
    February 14 2014 I received a certified letter from the hoa declaring that I owed 5000.00 in fines due solely to my 2 clothes lines. I did not receive any notification until 2/14/2014. According to them they mailed letters to my business address and completely missed them. In November 2013 and December 2013 they fined me a total of 5000.00.
    I don’t see how this hoa board can fine me and place liens in 45 days for nonpayment of these absurd and bogus fines. The hoa board with the knowledge of fl 163 law has opted to move forward thinking that they can supersede floridas right to dry law. This is unbelievable,
    Sincerely Peggy m. Campbell

    • Serena Larkin says:

      Wow, Peggy, that is awful! The HOA is clearly breaking the law. Have you tried getting in touch with local media? Perhaps take heart from this story in the meantime. And don’t give up! You’re right!

  32. Donna. Simmons says:

    I live in Maryland, Baltimore

    County and have a neighbor who insists hanging her laundry over her porch which obstrucks my waterfront view. I pay dearly for that view and wish she would put it in her back yard instead. Is there anything I can do? Asking has gotten me nowhere.

  33. Elizabeth > Gordon (elizag) says:

    Thank you for your work on this! I hope it’s okay to share this performance poem here, “The Clotheslines of Cohoes.”

  34. Tsu Dho Nimh says:

    Unfortunately for Arizona, clotheslines are not deficed as “solar energy devices” foir the purpose of HOA restrictions:

    ” 1. “Collector” means a component of a solar energy device that is used to absorb solar radiation, convert it to heat or electricity and transfer the heat to a heat transfer fluid or to storage.

    2. “Heat exchanger” means a component of a solar energy device that is used to transfer heat from one fluid to another.

    3. “Solar daylighting” means a device specifically designed to capture and redirect the visible portion of the solar beam spectrum, while controlling the infrared portion, for use in illuminating interior building spaces in lieu of artificial lighting.

    4. “Solar energy device” means a system or series of mechanisms designed primarily to provide heating, to provide cooling, to produce electrical power, to produce mechanical power, to provide solar daylighting or to provide any combination of the foregoing by means of collecting and transferring solar generated energy into such uses either by active or passive means. Such systems may also have the capability of storing such energy for future utilization. Passive systems shall clearly be designed as a solar energy device such as a trombe wall and not merely a part of a normal structure such as a window.

    5. “Storage unit” means a component of a solar energy device that is used to store solar generated electricity or heat for later use.”

  35. Christina says:

    I would love some verification here. I live in SE Portland, in an older neighborhood (our house was built in ’56). We do not have a HOA. Are there any restrictions for building a clothesline in our area? Portlandline.gov is no help.

    • Jon says:

      No HOA means no restrictions!

  36. Nadine says:

    I live in a HOA in California where CC&R contains Solar Access Law Civil Code 714 as well as clothesline ban. HOA attorney argues clothesline doesn’t fall into definition of solar energy system. I’m hoping to reach middle ground by increasing fence height/coverage to obstruct sight of my clothesline but so far I haven’t been successful and I’ve been threatened already having to pay for any legal fees if I continue to dry on clothesline.

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